About the score:
The 12-item Short Form Survey (SF-12) is a general health questionnaire that was first published in 1995 as part of the medical outcomes study Medical Outcomes Study (MOS). The SF-12 was constructed using questions drawn from each of the 8 dimensions of the MOS 36 item Short Form Survey (SF-36). It is designed to have similar performance to the SF-36, while taking less time to complete.
Two summary scores are reported from the SF-12 – a mental component score (MCS-12) and a physical component score (PCS-12). The scores may be reported as Z-scores (difference compared to the population average, measured in standard deviations). The United States population average PCS-12 and MCS-12 are both 50 points. The United States population standard deviation is 10 points. So each 10 increment of 10 points above or below 50, corresponds to one standard deviation away from the average.
The version shown here corresponds to the SF-12 version 1.0. This version of the SF-12 is non-proprietary, and the scores calculated are in reference to the United States population profile at the time of the original publication in 1994. Subsequent updates to the SF-12 have been made that align the scores with more recent U.S. demographics. However, these updates are proprietary, unlike the original SF-12. Although differences in scores between different scoring systems for the sf-12 may be minor, clinicians and researchers should note the version of the SF-12 they are using.
Ware Jr, John E., Mark Kosinski, and Susan D. Keller. “A 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey: construction of scales and preliminary tests of reliability and validity.” Medical care 34.3 (1996): 220-233.
Gandek, Barbara, et al. “Cross-validation of item selection and scoring for the SF-12 Health Survey in nine countries: results from the IQOLA Project.” Journal of clinical epidemiology51.11 (1998): 1171-1178.
Jenkinson, Crispin, et al. “A shorter form health survey: can the SF-12 replicate results from the SF-36 in longitudinal studies?.” Journal of Public Health 19.2 (1997): 179-186.
Ware, John E., Susan D. Keller, and Mark Kosinski. SF-12: How to score the SF-12 physical and mental health summary scales. Health Institute, New England Medical Center, 1995.
About the score developer:
John E. Ware Jr., PhD is the Chief Science Officer and Chairman of the John Ware Research Group, Inc., a private company he founded that is focused on using patient reported outcomes to improve healthcare delivery. He is also Professor and Chief
of the Outcomes Division in the Department of Quantitative Health Sciences at UMass Medical School. He is an elected member of the National Academy of Medicine.
To view his publications, please visit PubMed.
To view his private company website, please visit John Ware Research Group, Inc..