About the score:
The Veterans RAND 12 Item Health Survey (VR-12) was developed from the Veterans RAND 36 Item Health Survey (VR-36) which was developed from the MOS RAND SF-36 Version 1.0. It was designed to replicate much of the behavior of the VR-36 with a reduced number of questions.
The results of the VR-12 are summarized as two scores – a Mental Component Score (MCS) and a Physical Component Score (PCS). The scores may be reported as Z-scores (difference compared to the population average, measured in standard deviations). The United States population average PCS and MCS are both 50 points. The United States population standard deviation is 10 points. Therefore, each increment of 10 points above or below 50 corresponds to one standard deviation away from the population average.
The VR-12 is in the public domain and there is no charge for its use. The score developers request acknowledgement for its use as they outline on their website their website. Subsequent updates to the VR-12 scoring have been made to align the scores with more recent U.S. demographics. This updated scoring is available from the score developer. Although differences in scores between different scoring systems for the VR-12 may be minor, clinicians and researchers should note the version of the VR-12 they are using.
Kazis, Lewis E., et al. “Dissemination of methods and results from the veterans health study: final comments and implications for future monitoring strategies within and outside the veterans healthcare system.” The Journal of ambulatory care management 29.4 (2006): 310-319.
Spiro, Avron, et al. “Imputing physical and mental summary scores (PCS and MCS) for the Veterans SF-12 Health Survey in the context of missing data.” Baltimore, CMS (2004).
Final Report on Analysis of Key Drivers of Improving or Maintaining Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (HOS) Scores. 2013
Selim, Alfredo J., et al. “Risk-adjusted mortality as an indicator of outcomes: comparison of the Medicare Advantage Program with the Veterans’ Health Administration.” Medical care (2006): 359-365.
Selim, Alfredo J., et al. “Updated US population standard for the Veterans RAND 12-item Health Survey (VR-12).” Quality of Life Research 18.1 (2009): 43-52.
Schalet, Benjamin D., et al. “Linking physical and mental health summary scores from the Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey (VR-12) to the PROMIS® Global Health Scale.” Journal of general internal medicine 30.10 (2015): 1524-1530.
About the score developer:
Dr. Lewis E. Kazis is a Professor at the Boston University School of Public Health where his research is focused on assessing quality of care and health status.
To view his publications, please visit PubMed.